Dennis Edwards 1943-2018
Dennis Edwards, who died on February 1, two days before what would have been his 75th birthday, was given an unusually demanding job back in 1969 when he was called upon to replace David Ruffin as one of the Temptations’ lead singers. Ruffin had left the group after being voted out by his colleagues, who were prepared to lose the matchless voice of “Ain’t Too Proud to Beg” and “(I Know) I’m Losing You” in order to rid themselves of a man whose drug intake contributed to an ego running out of control.
“Eddie (Kendricks) and I first noticed a singer named Dennis Edwards at the Howard Theatre in Washington, D.C., when he was still with the Contours,” group member Otis Williams wrote in his autobiography (Temptations, Fireside Books, 1989). “We watched from the wings as he sang lead on Lou Rawls’s ‘Love Is a Hurtin’ Thing’. Dennis not only had a stirring, soulful voice, but he was a showman with real command of the audience. His style was a little rougher and grittier than David’s, but we could tell that David would be able to handle David’s songs and bring a new sound to the Tempts as well. Eddie looked at me and said, ‘That’s who we should get. If David don’t straighten up, that’s who we should keep in mind.”
In one sense, the transition was easy: a simple matter of a personnel transfer from one Motown group, a mid-level attraction with their best years behind them, to another at the much higher peak of their powers. But it was far from straightforward. Ruffin refused to accept his rejection, turning up at the group’s gigs on several occasions and trying to join them on stage so persistently that for a while they had to hire security guards to keep him away.
Edwards was fortunate in that his arrival coincided with a change in the group’s style, masterminded by their visionary producer, Norman Whitfield, and his co-writer, Barrett Strong. Whitfield yanked Motown into the era of psychedelic soul, expressed in 10-minute tracks with lengthy instrumental interludes and strange sound effects, wah-wah guitar licks and chattering hi-hats, laconically minimal bass riffs and soaring strings, and lyrics with a strong dose of social realism shared around between the contrasting voices, from Kendricks’s falsetto to Melvin Franklin’s bass.
The new singer’s first recording with the group was the one that announced the new approach: “Cloud Nine”, a No. 2 hit on the U.S. pop charts in 1968. The lead is switched around throughout the track, but Edwards kicks it off, his raw, gospel-schooled tenor establishing the unvarnished tone: “The childhood part of my life, it wasn’t very pretty / See, I was born and raised in the slums of the city / It was a one-room shack we slept in, other children beside me / We hardly had enough food or room to sleep / It was hard times, needed something to ease my troubled mind . . . ” Whitfield’s rhythm track made inventive use of Motown studio stalwarts James Jamerson on bass guitar and Uriel Jones on drums, bringing in Melvin “Wah-Wah” Ragin to play rhythm guitar, Spider Webb on a second drum kit, and — so it’s said — Mongo Santamaria on congas.
The record won a Grammy for best performance by an R&B group, confirming the commercial validity of Whitfield’s decision to venture away from Motown’s tried-and-true methods. Again Edwards was the dominant voice as the combination spent the next four years rolling out hits like “I Can’t Get Next to You”, “Psychedelic Shack” and “Ball of Confusion”. The great run reached its climax in 1973 with the epic “Papa Was a Rollin’ Stone”: a 45 with a six-minute A-side but a full 12 minutes on the album. The long instrumental sections featured the jazz trumpet of Maurice Davis, who combined his frequent appearances in the Motown studios with a teaching job in the Detroit public school system, and the guitars of Ragin (wah-wah rhythm, left channel) and the 19-year-old Paul Warren (blues licks, right channel), a Whitfield protégé who went on to long-term road gigs with Joe Cocker, Eros Ramazotti and Rod Stewart. Plus, of course, Jamerson and Jones, and Eddie “Bongo” Brown’s congas, and Paul Riser’s superb arrangement for a contingent of the Detroit Symphony Orchestra. And the finest double-time handclaps ever committed to record.
In fact this one-chord jam was Whitfield’s Symphony in B Flat Minor, one of the high points of 20th century popular music. And at its centre was Dennis Edwards, the voice of the song’s protagonist: “It was the third of September / That day I’ll always remember (yes I will) / ‘Cause that was the day that my daddy died / I never got a chance to see him / Never heard nothin’ but bad things about him / Mama, I’m depending on you to tell me the truth . . . ”
Maybe a group with so many superb lead singers always contained the seeds of its own destruction. Kendricks had left by the time of “Papa”, disliking the extravagance of Whitfield’s productions and missing Ruffin’s voice alongside him. Paul Williams, the group’s first lead singer until Kendricks and Ruffin took over, left the following year, suffering from a combination of sickle-cell anaemia and alcoholism; he died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound in 1973. Ruffin died of a cocaine overdose in 1991. Kendricks succumbed to lung cancer in 1992. Franklin suffered a fatal cerebral seizure in 1995. Otis Williams still leads the Temptations — the last survivor of the original Famous Five and now also of the group who, with Edwards’ arrival, turned the page to begin a brilliant new chapter.
Wonderful piece, Richard, you’ve done it yet again. In addition, you clearly have good reliable sources Stateside providing up-to-the-minute news – mostly relating to the grim reaper, sadly -thus laying the foundations for your exemplary writing.
Many thanks !
1984 is a generation on from ‘Cloud Nine’ in pop terms, but I can still never hear ‘Don’t Look Any Further’ without breaking into a smile. A particularly sinuous quiet storm song with a very pleasurable steely confidence in Edwards’ vocal.
Here is the Los Angeles side to this story. In no particular order; I got on an elevator in Beverly Hills in a building off Sunset just west of Doheny and on the elevator was Melvin Franklin. I am guessing this is 1986. As it was just him and me I timidly asked him if he was not Melvin Franklin of the Temptations. He looked up quite surprised and said, “yes!…yes, I am. No one ever seems to recognise me in Beverly Hills. I guess I have to sing something to get recognised here!” and we both laughed.
I saw a Temptations Vs. Four Tops gig at the Beverly Theatre in 1983 or so and to my amazement there were seven Temptations. Richard Street was one of them and I cannot remember who the seventh Temptation was. The Four Tops were of course the original four guys who lasted from 1954 to Levi Stubbs’ death. It was a great gig. A year or two later the Tempts came back and did a All-Star Greatest Hits show and everyone was there including David Ruffin, a man who joked about saying they’d die without his voice and then he admitted the next four or five songs of the evening were hits without him being in the band.
Dennis Edwards did a solo gig about 1990. He came on, sang two songs. Yes, two songs. The band went into a third song and Edwards strolled offstage. The band went into a funk jam of about eight minutes and Edwards never came back. Show over. No refund. I was told later by a friend of mine Edwards had a coke habit and it called him after two songs but I do not know this for a fact but there you are.
Paul Warren later led a “new wave” skinny tie band called Paul Warren and Explorer circa 1978-1980. They were not good. He told me backstage at The Starwood he had played on Temptations’ hits like Papa Was A Rolling Stone and for about five years I thought he was lying and an awful person. I found out the truth later and felt awful as he was of course telling the straight truth. He was in an earlier L.A. band with Ray Manzerak of The Doors but I am not a Doors guy so when Manzerak came out to jam at Explorer encores it meant little to me.
Actually I first saw the Temptations in 1971 in Kentucky at Freedom Hall. It was a great gig you would not forget. I saw a guy pull a knife on another guy that night…you don’t forget that. It snowed and afterwards what started as a playful snowball fight outside the gig became a massive Caucasians Vs. African-Americans snowball fight with real viciousness. I can’t forget that either. How pathetic, how sad.
Wonderful piece, Richard. If you are writing your pieces from memory, you clearly came out of the box with a huge amount more RAM than I did! It took me 5 minutes to recall David Ruffin’s name yesterday! Thanks so much for your committment to this blog, always lights up my day!
Lovely piece as ever.
I’m another fan of “Don’t Look Any Further” although my initial acquaintance of the song was via a rather good cover by the almost forgotten Kane Gang (rather than the considerably later cover by the probably best forgotten M People). I was surprised to see how low a chart placing Edwards’ original on both sides of the pond.
I also love David Ruffin’s late 60s 45 “My Whole World Ended” which belongs to that niche market of great pop records to heavily feature an oboe.
Bobby Womack your shouldn’t be mine Anthony Brown song all microphone microphone stand guitar drums keyboard bass Motown record’s gospel music karaoke machine party the temptations the way things you do my girl get ready ain’t proud to beg you my everything cloud nine I can’t get next to you ball of confusion just my imagination papa rolling stone sing gospel music