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Ornette and the skies of London

Fifty years ago today, at 10 o’clock on the morning of Monday 17 April 1972, the photographer Val Wilmer and I arrived at Abbey Road Studios to hear Ornette Coleman recording The Skies of America with the London Symphony Orchestra. It was the first of four three-hour sessions, held on consecutive days, during which the entire work was committed to tape. Here’s one of Val’s pictures, reproduced by her kind permission, and my report, published in the Melody Maker later that week.

“This is The Skies of America, take one.” The smoothly modulated voice of Paul Myers, the head of CBS Records’ classical department, halts a conversation among the second violins.

David Measham, the conductor, counts off a bar, and the orchestra launches itself into a jagged ensemble in which it’s hard to perceive a lead voice. But Measham hears a goof, and drags it to a halt.

“We’ll do it without the trumpets and trombones,” he says. “Are the horns comfortable with this?”

“No more uncomfortable than anywhere else,” mutters a youngish, bespectacled musician, one hand wedged firmly up the bell of his French horn.

He seems to be expressing the consensual view of the London Symphony Orchestra. Mild bewilderment and a certain amount of genteel exasperation are mingled with rather smaller amounts of genuine interest and curiosity about the nature of the work that confronts them this morning in the famous Studio No 2.

This is quite an unusual day in the life of the LSO. The Skies of America is a new work, and they are recording it in the presence of the composer, Ornette Coleman. It’s his first symphonic piece. And it seems to be quite unlike anything the musicians have had to face before.

Some of the problems have been caused by the composer. Certain passages of the work, which consists of 21 short sections and will last about 40 minutes, are almost impossible to play. The strain on the trumpeters, for instance, is such that they’ve made an agreement between themselves to alternate the high-note passages, in order to save their lips from damage.

This is the first day of recording. Last week there were three days of rehearsal, but the parts are still causing trouble. Poor copying, for example, has led the tuba-player to confuse his sharps and flats. “You just have to approximate it,” he sighs. Is it hard? “Bloody impossible.”

The work was to have been recorded with the LSO and Coleman’s quartet, but Musicians’ Union restrictions prevented the use of the American players. “So then we wanted to take the tapes back to New York and overdub the quartet,” Coleman explains, “but they wouldn’t let us even do that. And I always thought electronics were supposed to make things quicker and easier, didn’t you?”

During the takes, Ornette sits on his upturned saxophone case, next to the conductor’s rostrum. He’s wearing a charcoal mohair suit with a flared flap in the back, and a silky cream shirt. His boots are made of multicoloured patchwork leather. As has been his habit for many years, he designed them himself. Beside him, there’s a table. On it lie his packet of Gauloises, his cup of coffee, a red telephone which connects him with the producer in the control room, and his alto saxophone.

Every so often he makes quiet suggestions to Measham or goes over to the drum booth to discuss some point or other with Mike Frye, the LSO’s young percussionist, who is playing a part intended for Ed Blackwell. Frye has never heard of Blackwell, the brilliant drummer from New Orleans who played in the quartet with which Coleman set the jazz scene on its ear a dozen years ago. But he’s doing fine, particularly in view of the fact that what he’s being called upon to play bears only the most tenuous of explicit relationships to the patterns written for the rest of the orchestra.

“We need three conductors, really,” he remarks gravely to Ornette, who nods.

At one point, Ornette takes up the sticks to give Frye a practical demonstration of what he wants. He plays a couple of brief phrases on the snare and top tom-tom, and the immediate resemblance to Blackwell’s unique top-of-the-beat style is startling.

Seated around Coleman, Measham and Frye are 26 violins, 10 violas, eight cellos, six double basses, four flutes, four oboes, four bassoons, four clarinets, four trumpets, four trombones, four French horns, a tuba, a harp and a tympanist. It is, of course, the biggest ensemble Coleman has ever been involved with. This is a man who played on the chitlin’ circuit in his youth, honking out the simple phrases of rabble-rousing rhythm and blues, and who then became the most compelling figure to emerge from the avant-garde of the late ’50s, when his quartet made a series of recordings that seemed to embody both extreme complexity and a love of unfettered melody and irresistible rhythm, implying that perhaps sophistication and naturalness were not polar opposites but could co-exist within music. In the ’60s he also took his first steps into music written for chamber groups — which, on the rare occasions it was recorded or performed in concert, was generally received with a mixture of bafflement and disapproval.

As the orchestra struggles through another section, it’s hard to describe how the music sounds. There are broad melodies which seem never to repeat themselves, and fast staccato phrases which give the trumpets no end of trouble. But in the control booth, even in this rough state, the impression is hugely striking.

“It’s not meant to be a symphony orchestra playing,” Ornette explains, in his characteristically elliptical way, during a break. “Not that particular sound. It’s just supposed to be the way these instruments sound when they play together. In fact it’s not supposed to sound like particular instruments at all. It’s written so that you can’t tell who’s playing what. Listen to that high note. You can’t tell whether it’s the strings or the brass.”

In the booth, he talks about his attitude to melody. He prefers to work with instrumental melody because it allows a more open interpretation. Listeners have to put something of themselves into it in order to get something out. “It’s like this part, here. If you and I were singing it, we’d probably sing different notes, because it sounds different to each of us. You can’t do that with song form. I think that’s one reason why classical music is so unpopular. Working people don’t have the time to put themselves into this music.”

The orchestra returns. While some of the musicians tune up, others read books and magazines propped on their music stands. A few of them return to their reading matter even during eight-bar rests.

Next they’re going to tackle a section that begins with a small section of the strings and the woodwind, playing a long seamless line that wanders without retracing its steps. The spare voicing and muted timbre make it sound like something by Charles Ives — Central Park in the Dark, maybe. Gradually the rest of the orchestra joins in, building on the slow line in a lengthy and deliberate crescendo which has an air of wonderment and discovery. “Like a flower opening,” Ornette remarks.

They get a good take, and Ornette rushes up to the booth. “That part after the melody — where it’s reversed — does it sound too dark? It’s supposed to be like night, with the stars shining through.”

No, he’s told, it’s fine. Even Measham agrees, although he’s been constantly troubled by a conductor’s score that doesn’t tally with some of the individual parts. “It’s such a waste of time when that happens,” he says. “It costs a of money on a session this size. But Ornette is amazing. He knows every note of music on this score by memory. And there’s a lot of music in it.”

The digital clock flicks over to 13:00 and the session is at an end. The musicians pack up and head for the door. Ornette hooks his alto to his sling and walks around the emptying floor, playing a handful of lyrical phrases in that tone which prompted a participant in one of his early recording sessions, the drummer Shelly Manne, to say that “he sounds like a person laughing, and a person crying.”

He pauses and takes the horn from his mouth. “Hey,” he says. “We’re getting there, aren’t we? And we’ll do better tomorrow.”

* The following evening, at the BBC TV Centre, I interviewed Ornette live on an edition of The Old Grey Whistle Test that also featured music by the Stooges, Manfred Mann’s Earth Band and Linda Lewis. Two months later I heard him play The Skies of America with his quartet and the American Symphony Orchestra at Philharmonic Hall in New York, a world premiere coinciding with the album release. In 1988, before a London performance of a revised version with Prime Time and the Philharmonia Orchestra, Ornette told me about how the idea for the piece had come to him on a visit to a Native American reservation in Montana in the 1960s: “I participated in their sacred rites, and it made me think about the many different elements existing in America, in relation to its causes, purpose and destiny. For some reason, I got that feeling from the sky. I feel that everything that has ever happened in America, from way before the Europeans arrived, is still intact as far as the sky is concerned.”

25 Comments Post a comment
  1. Good to see you’re back – lovely piece here!

    April 17, 2022
  2. Mick Tarrant #

    “I interviewed Ornette live on an edition of The Old Grey Whistle Test that also featured music by the Stooges, Manfred Mann’s Earth Band and Linda Lewis”

    Wow, eclectic mix of music on that edition of OGWT.

    April 17, 2022
  3. That’s fascinating. Thanks Richard

    April 17, 2022
  4. great that you’re back here – a sweet Easter surprise, thanks!

    April 17, 2022
  5. Neil Poole #

    Welcome back Richard. I’ve missed you. Fascinating piece. Best wishes Neil Poole ________________________________

    April 17, 2022
  6. Daniel Silverstone #

    what a great piece thanks

    April 17, 2022
  7. Evan Parker #

    I missed this piece back then.
    Great to read it now.

    April 17, 2022
  8. An Easter treat. Great piece about a great piece. Thank you Richard!

    April 17, 2022
  9. Welcome back dear R. This long piece about Ornette is really brilliant, full of interesting points of view. We need more pieces like this !!!

    April 17, 2022
  10. Dennis Smith #

    Welcome back Mr W. Boy, how I’ve missed your wise and entertaining words.
    On this occasion it seems to me your piece is a perfect accompaniment to a wonderfully complex, challenging, yet ultimately beautiful and rewarding work by a true artist.
    Thanks as always.

    April 17, 2022
  11. keith wood #

    Welcome back. Excellent piece to kick it off. Ornette’s description of America and the sky etc. very beautiful and revealing.

    April 17, 2022
  12. Clive Robertson #

    Thanks Richard

    April 17, 2022
  13. Valentine Wiggins #

    Great to see the return of the Bluemoment. I clearly remember seeing the interview with Ornette on the OGWT. In the days before the internet and even home recording of TV it was a rare and precious event to see. The LSO behaved disgracefully to this iconic genius.

    April 17, 2022
  14. Gianni Papa #

    Great you are back Mr. Williams. I missed your blog. Great piece on Ornette Coleman too!

    April 17, 2022
  15. Fantastic piece that makes you feel as if you were there, Richard…

    April 17, 2022
  16. Mick Steels #

    You will have to imagine Ornette’s sartorial elegance but here is the interview from OGWT, back to Manfred Mann’s Earth Band indeed

    April 17, 2022
    • Tim Adkin #

      Whilst no apologist for the Earthband, back when this was broadcast it wouldn’t actually have been that much of a stretch from Ornette to Mann. MM’s Chapter 3 (his immediately preceding band) was an interesting Dr. John meets Mingus experiment with some wild moments via Westbrook alumnus Bernie Livings – and Harry Beckett. Mann himself had also IMS made some thoughtful R3 documentaries circa ’71 on the likes of the Velvets and the Dead. As to the LSO – bear in mind, next time you watch the Morecambe and Wise/Andre Previn sketch, that most of those guys in the orchestra are on ‘Skies….’ a piece which still sounds like it’s from the future (as does ‘Dancing in Your Head’). Good to see you back Richard even if it’s only temporary.

      April 18, 2022
      • Mick Steels #

        Chapter Three I do recall pity it didn’t work out commercially, also the Radio 3 docs which I remember featuring Zappa & B,S & T which kind of dates it. Would be interesting to hear them again

        April 18, 2022
      • Tim Adkin #

        It would indeed be interesting to hear those docs again – they were the first and only times I heard ‘Murder Mystery’ and ‘What’s Become of the Baby’ on the wireless. Tim Souster did some similar shows. There’s another Mann/Ornette connection – Mann’s real surname is Lubowitz and he adopted ‘Manne’ (subsequently dropping the ‘e’) from Shelly!

        April 18, 2022
  17. jazzmandel #

    Great to have your report. Especially good to know David Measham appreciate Ornette’s music. I’ve heard Skies performed by other orchestras and the piece remains uniquely challenging, puzzling, profound.

    April 18, 2022
  18. John Kieffer #

    Great piece Richard – and a wonderful Shelly Manne quote. Thanks for posting. Very good to have you back!

    April 18, 2022
  19. Writing as vibrant now as it was then. Thank you very much

    April 18, 2022
  20. Tim Williams #

    A quality essay. After reading it I sat to listen to American Skies. It is still as impenetrable as it was when I first heard it a long time ago, when I thought it might be cool to pretend I liked it. I decided that was a bad idea as it wouldn’t impress my musical friends one bit. Thanks very much for sharing your fine work

    April 19, 2022
  21. Paul Crowe #

    Brilliant piece, Richard, thank you. I must have read the original article but, honestly and somewhat shamefully, do not recall it.

    April 21, 2022
  22. I’ll echo, but sincerely: fascinating.

    May 3, 2022

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